In the following discussion, these two articles are cited as Alster and Selz, respectively. A xix A iv 26; Hallo RAI 17 p. It is tempting to assume that this lapis-lazuli tablet was a kind of star-map or symbolic representation of the sky. In Gudea Cyl. A IT 23 — vi 2 she is said to consult the tablet in order to tell Gudea with a bright star to begin the construction of Ningirsu's temple. This passage is cited by Falkenstein as an indication, however faint, of some interest in astrology. The passage which mentions a sign giskim which Ningirsu promises to give Gudea Cyl.
A ix to build his temple, the bright star to call for his rites, may be understood in a similar way. The decay of this tradition in Old Babylonian times is vividly illustrated in the hymn to Enlilbani ca. The overall impression given by the Sumerian sources is that Nisaba was mainly concerned with the management of agriculture and the timing of activities that were dependent on the yearly seasons. The knowledge of astronomy not astrology! Similar statements are apparently the basis for the description of Nisaba as "Deuterin der Himmelschrift" by Selz, p.
The Sumerians undoubtedly watched the sky and defined and named some of the constellations and planets. Most of the names of celestial bodies were Sumerian throughout the later periods, and some of them at least must have Sumerian origins. Thus the origins of Babylonian astrology is not to be sought among the Sumerians — their perspective of the world was very much Earth-centered. This differs somewhat from the situation in extispicy, where Sumerian practice of the art is well attested, if only indirectly.
Old Akkadian astrology? Weidner suggested4 that the omens mentioning Sargon 5 and Ibbi-Sin in- corporated in the canonical series Enuma Anu Enlil may actually derive from contemporary observations and that, consequently, celestial omens Contrary to Weidner's statement in RLA "Fixsterne", no star list of the third millennium su rv ives. However, the occurrence of the star name mul 'sul--gi in two of these lists MSL XI - viii 41, rev.
Horowitz, ASJ 13 p. In Shulgi Hymn B we hear that a star will be born in honour of the king. Reiner, SpTU I p. The phrase mds lu mu gd is found in IAS v 13 and duplicates. These omens are most likely to be treated like the "historical" omens in general, see above p. It has been suggested 3 that some of the exceptionally detailed descriptions of lunar eclipses in EAE 20 and 21 may be based on observa- tions.
But, as pointed out by Rochberg-Halton, 4 some of these eclipses could not have occurred as recorded, and it seems a little problematic to pick out some of them for chronological purposes, as done by Huber, 5 ignorthes. Mv,acordingtHube'slao,"nfwer than three! He is also mentioned in ACh Ishtar , likewise in broken context. Ibbi-Sin is mentioned in ACh 2. It is an omen of Ibbi-Sin, king of Ur, who went to Elam in captivity, weeping. Schaumberger, e. The remarkable coincidence only holds true if Sollberger's relative chronology of the Akkad dynasty is correct — and there is some reason to doubt that it is.
However that may be, it is not very likely that astrology had origins separate from that of the other divinatory sciences. The most cogent argument for a third-millennium origin of Babylonian divination, including astrology, would be its advanced state of develop- ment already in the Old Babylonian period. It was hardly born like Athena. The texts are already highly structured, as is indeed the case with most early omen texts. According to that, Naram-Sin may have reigned for 56 years, not Rochberg-Halton is preparing a volume on celestial divination in the second millennium with an edition of Old Babylonian eclipse omens.
The only text from Babylonia proper that has been published3 concerns the weather and lunar phenomena other than eclipses. Rochberg-Halton mentions an unpublished tablet with solar and meteorological omens. The "Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa", 6 which constitutes tablet 63 of EAE, should also be mentioned here, as the observations on which at least some of the protases were formed, were made in Old Babylonian times.?
The apodoses are standardized in the form well known from astrological omens in general and give the impression of being later additions, rather than, for example, reflecting contemporary events. The lunar eclipse texts, which are the only ones to have been studied in any detail so far, and whose development in the succeeding centuries 1 Rochberg-Halton p.
I am not sure whether this is identical with the text mentioned by Bottero p. Sileiko , see also Bauer Another text, VAT , which was mentioned by Meissner p. The mistake was probably caused by the mention of stars and Sulpae Jupiter in i Both the sign forms and the orthography suggest an Old Babylonian origin of this tablet. It does not seem overly fanciful to assume that it was part of the booty carried from Babylon by Mursilis I in Its duplicates show Hittite sign forms.
It is possible that this omen originally was a report ibid. He argues that all the 21 years covered by the text stem from obse rvations in Ammisaduqa's 21 years' reign, rather than just the first 8 Reiner and Pingree p. They all contain omens arranged according to date, and two of the texts contain omens with other variables in addition. Elam is included only once in direction omens, but appears in other contexts. All the variables are found in EAE and in much the same formulary, only the formulary of the protases concerning the date, which varies in the Old Babylonian texts, was streamlined in later editions.
As far as I know, this text has no direct parallels except for a few passages. But celestial divination seems to have played no significant role in Mari. Asqudum had access to Babylonian learning3 besides the technique of liver divination, but apparently he did not know much of Babylonian astrology. On the other hand, it seems to have been standard procedure, at least at Mari, to elicit further information about the significance of an eclipse, or any other extraordinary event, by means of extispicy, 4 as was also done later see below p.
From this period we also have evidence that celestial bodies played a part in fields outside astrology proper. Especially the Pleiades may already have held a prominent position cf. On seal cylinders, from Protoliterate to Late Assyrian times, seven points often appear. At least in some instances, the Pleiades may be represented; but their significance on the seal cylinders is unknown.
Lambert, MARI 4, p.
Sports Venezuela | Los nuestros primero
Charpin, ibid. Most of the clear instances of the Pleiades come from Assyria. Note 7 on the next page They seem to be regarded as gods in their own right, invoked when those normally in charge of decision-making have gone to sleep 1. One is addressed to Ninsianna, the other to Annunitu, both, be it noted, hypostases of Ishtar, who are asked to give him a favourable omen.
These prayers bear some resemblance to tamitu-texts. Reiner suggests the first to be a prayer to Venus as a morning star since she is referred to in the masculine and is called "lord Ninsianna". But the characteristic "international" horizon of Mesopotamian astrology is already in evidence. Also, the apodoses are concerned with public affairs. Rochberg-Halton 5 takes this as an indication that astrology was "closer to the academic forms of divination, i.
Reiner p. Ninsianna is known to be a bisexual deity Meyer ibid. According to one tradition, Venus was male as the morning star and female as the evening star; according to another it was the other way around, see below p. In this context may also belong CT 42 6, a trilingual Old Babylonian ritual which mentions mul. These latter could answer specific questions from individuals about their private affairs. This interesting suggestion, that public means "scholarly", and "private" means "folklore", which might have deserved some elaboration, does not quite car ry conviction: Old Babylonian extispicy, undoubtedly a "scholarly" branch of divination, is frequently about private affairs.
The Middle Period Our knowledge of the history of astrology during the later centuries of the second millennium is very meagre indeed, due to the well-known paucity of contemporary sources from Babylonia itself. We do happen to know that astrology was in actual use during the second dynasty of Isin at the court of Marduk-nadin-ahhe B. The symbolic decorations of the kudurrus, some of which probably represent the deities in their celestial aspects, 3 point in the same direction. Ursula Seidl has chosen to regard none of them as such, but to me it seems rather certain in the case of the moon, the sun and Venus, perhaps also Virgo, Hydra, Corvus, Taurus and mul.
Virgo mul. The ear of corn represented on the kudurrus might therefore be taken to represent Virgo. The same holds true for Hydra mul. Taurus mul. This text could be a report since the meteorological phenomena listed could all have taken place in one day, 2 and the tablet was probably not much larger originally and is only inscribed on one side. If this text is indeed a report, it is possible that astrology had already obtained some importance in official or public affairs.
The series may of course have existed earlier. It is an assyriological commonplace that the great series, including EAE, received more or less their "canonical" shape in the late second millen- nium. This is largely due to the fame of scribes and scholars from this period, many of whom are known to us by name from, for instance, the "Catalogue of Texts and Authors".
According to the second list in that text, Enuma Anu Enlil 4 belonged to the exorcist's compendium ascribed to Esagil-kin-apla, who lived in the reign of Adad- apla-iddina B. No registration number: "tablet was catalogued after being copied, and then lost sight of" p. Another Nippur text, unpublished, is described by Rochberg-Halton p. See also Lambert and , and Rochberg-Halton p. GIG and produced a proper edition' out of the mess that confronted him, "twisted threads without duplicates". Whether he actually did the same work on EAE is of course impossible to say, but the subscript of one of the sources for the "Babylonian" recension of EAE tablet 20 2 states that it was written according to a writing board from the 11th year of Adad-apla-iddina, and might thus have been a part of an Esagil-kin-apla edition.
Certainly the confused and contradictory state of the astrological omen tradition around the mid- second millennium, as known to us from the peripheral areas, 3 fits the description "twisted threads without duplicates". The textual developments in the last centuries of the second millen- nium are difficult to follow.
Most of the sources come from Assyria, and it has been claimed that an independent Assyrian tradition can be detected. Geller p. Apin p. Pingree suggests that the two lists of ziypu stars Mul. Why Nineveh? See also M. Geller She distinguishes between two types of texts, the so-called transitional type and the EAE ty pe. The "transitional" texts retain some of the characteristics of the Old Babylonian texts but also show the tendency known from the Neo-Assyrian texts to standardize the writing of the protasis with logograms. In the Middle Assyrian eclipse texts are included elements not found in the Old Babylonian texts, such as wind.
Apart from the eclipse texts, we have KAR , very fragmentary, protases mostly missing, which also concerns lunar eclipses. At least the last two of these texts come from a private library belonging to a family of scribes in Assur, evidently with a broad range of interests. Due to the regrettable paucity of sources from Babylonia itself, the neigh- bouring countries supply better and ampler evidence of the evolution of divination in the late Old Babylonian and Middle periods.
This is the library M2, ibid. A fact that has often been noted is the high proportion of astrological omens as opposed to other Mesopotamian divinatory genres at Hattusas: the number of astrological texts almost equals the total number of texts from the other divinatory genres combined. The divination texts are of course vastly outnumbered by the Hittite oracle texts by 10 to 1. The Hittite astrological texts most likely reflect Babylonian originals of varying dates, ranging from Old Babylonian to ca. Laroche, Catalogue des textes hittites, nos.
The text was edited with an unpublished join, given in transliteration and translation only, by H. Sachs p. The join has since been published as KBo 36 no. The compiler of the catalogues was evidently much more interested in the treaties and rituals, the astrological texts receive cursory treatment. We do not have — as far as I know — any texts dealing with planetary omens, and the fixed stars play a very minor role. The exact meaning of the protasis is uncertain. Berman in Fs. After a division line the section is followed by omens of which only the first signs tdk-ku d 3[0 - - -], " if the m[oon]" are extant.
The text ends with the invocation of the stars of the paths of Ea, Anu and Enlil. Emar Another relatively large group of astrological texts has been found in the recent excavations at Emar. All the Emar texts those published at least 1 areinAkd tfromhe13cnuy. Twrepatofh library of the temple Ml, which seems to have been a kind of Pantheon. They were kept in a place of their own in the temple, together with other texts of Mesopotamian learning.
Here again the omens mostly concern the moon and the sun — only two fragments nos. Two tablets3 seem to be a long and a short version of the same text. They parallel the Hittite-Akkadian bilingual see p. It is written not too meticulously, for instance the month of Addaru appears in the place of Dumuzu 1. The text from Qatna see below is closely related, their common apodoses for Simanu are not found in the canonical EAE.
It ends with a passage which parallels most closely the Sumerian introduction to the canonical version of EAE, see below p. Dominique Beyer, Paris, Margueron ed. A mere fragment,' found in much disturbed context dating to the middle of the second millennium, represents the divinatory literature at this site. It is written in Middle Babylonian script and displays many syllabic spellings, among which the West-Semitism sa-me-e 2 stands out.
It contains two sections, both dealing with earthquakes. Apparently, it is an extract copy — there is no colophon — made from a damaged original hi- pi, lines 19 and The spelling sa-me-e is well known from the Amarna tablets. Two large fragmentary tablets, Wiseman, AT nos. They are badly written, apparently by the same scribe, and the sign AS is often used to indicate abbreviations e.
AS for an. Both texts deal with eclipses arranged according to month, and according to its colophon, was no. They are related to the Qatna text and no. A fresh edition might prove useful. There is one fragment in Ugaritic containing lunar omina, probably lunar eclipses and phenomena around new moon. Further, there is the famous and often discussed report2 which may contain the oldest dateable observation of a solar eclipse May 3rd, ?
Other divinatory genres are slightly better attested at Ugarit. We have 21 liver models, four of them inscribed, 4 and at least one text with what seems to be Ugaritic translations of Summa izbu. We have a fragment of a large tablet from Susa, 6 written in Akkadian and of uncertain date, but the many syllabic writings and the Bordreuil and Caquot, Syria 57 p. According to their interpretation of the text, Mars was visible during the eclipse, which excludes the date proposed by D. They suggest instead the date March 5, B.
Xella et al. An Akkadian fragment RS 7. See Xella, ibid. It contains some logograms peculiar to Akkadian texts from Elam. It is parallel to EAE tablet 22 part I g Tablet 22 is unlike other tablets of EAE, it is more archaic and features some "Elamite" writings — even ones that the Susa fragment does not have e. Rochberg- Halton implicitly suggests' that the sources for tablet 22 part I at least may have come by way of Elam to the Neo-Assyrian redactors of EAE since there seem to be no Middle Period or indeed Old Babylonian manuscripts from Mesopotamia. Furthermore, we have a pre-Achemenid meneological text in Elamite.
Taken as a whole, the documentation from the peripheral areas shows rather clearly that the EAE existed in a fairly developed state in the 14th century and that it was known and studied in Syrian centres possibly excepting Ugarit. The texts from Emar, Qatna, Alalakh and Nuzi are written in an orthography that differs very little from contemporary Middle Babylonian, while the Hittite texts give the impression of being more old-fashioned. What might be called the "calendrical" section of lunar eclipses seems to have been especially popular, and fragments of this section have been found almost everywhere.
They list omens according to month and date 14th, 15t h , 16th, 20th and 21st — to this "classical" list of days is added the period from the 21St to the 30th, variously phrased. This is the pattern found in some form in EAE tablets 17, 18 and Obviously, they are closely related and often show similar wording, but where enough of them is preserved and legible to permit valid com- parison, a very muddled picture emerges.
Farber discusses the problem of the origins and dissemination of EAE Texts from Babylonia are scarce, and none of them throws any light on the developments of astrology. And there is as yet no evidence that the Assyrian kings before Sargon II took more than a marginal interest in astrology see p. In contrast, the century from the accession of Sargon to the death of Assurbanipal is by far the best documented period, at least in Assyria. A unique wealth and diversity of sources allows us to see not only the most developed phase of traditional Mesopotamian astrology but also its practical application in state affairs.
The bulk of the sources for Classical Mesopotamian astrology, including the "canonical" versions of EAE is found in the Neo-Assyrian royal libraries, together with -letters and reports from Assyrian and Babylonian scholars to the Assyrian king. References to astrological omens in the royal inscriptions testify to astrology's importance in decision-making at the highest level, freely acknowledged even in official promulgations. Chapters are devoted to a closer analysis of this material.
However, even as traditional astrology reached its zenith, profound changes were taking place that eventually superseded it altogether. As usual, the beginnings of these developments are shrouded in obscurity, and so far we can only get a glimpse of the results, in the astrology of the Persian and Seleucid periods. The basic feature of this "new astrology" is the knowledge that the movements of the celestial bodies can be exactly calculated in advance.
Consequently, celestial phenomena could no longer be regarded as willed communications from the gods, and, the old idea, that "signs" in heaven correlate with events on Earth, was abandoned. The uses of astrology also changed: from being mostly concerned with the welfare of the state, it was increasingly applied to predict the fate of the individual. Mathematics, more than divinatory lore, became the key to the secrets of the stars and the future. Obviously, the ability to calculate the movements of the planets did not come about as a sudden inspiration or stroke of luck.
It presupposes centuries of sustained obse rvation and recording. We have here what may well be the earliest documented instance of a scientific revolution 2 — generations of scholars patiently collecting and recording data that, under the dominant theory, were unrelated to each other, in the end undermining the theory. Concomitant with these developments, new concepts were introduced. Each section might then be further divided into twelve equal parts.
It became an important ingredient in Hellenistic astrology. Traditional astrology did not disappear overnight. At first, the gains in astronomical knowledge seem to have had little impact on the tradition. Echoes of classical Babylonian omen astrology may be found in Egyptian, 2 Greek, Latin and Indian astrology 3 and even in Aramaic texts of the Byzantine period. Isfcueimpbl to know exactly how and when the Babylonian tradition was transmitted, but is natural to assume that contact was established during the time of the Persian empire.
According to both his friends and his enemies, illiterate Nabonidus even claimed to be able to understand the EAE better than the scribes who had brought him a copy of the series from Babylon, see Verse Account v 12' ff S. Smith, Babylonian Historical Texts p. Text A deals with eclipses, relating months to countries in the manner known from Babylonian astrology.
The system is adapted to the Egyptian political perspective and the countries are: the Hebrew land, Amor, Egypt and Syria. Text B contains omens pertaining to lunar phenomena, halos? It is evident that Damas- kios is not quoting from Berossos — whose book, Babyloniaka, he probably did not know any better than we do anyway.
From this period stem not only the many copies of the series Enuma Anu Enlil and the hemerologies from Assurbanipal's library but also a wealth of correspondence between Assyrian and Babylonian scholars and the kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal. The correspondence offers a unique opportunity, not only to see Mesopotamian scholarship in its practical applications, but also to understand some of its rationale: the scholars often try to explain their craft to an interested and important layman, their king and paymaster.
Admittedly, these explanations must have been rather different from whatever discussions the scholars may have had among themselves, a subject we would dearly like to know more about. The correspondence can be divided into two categories: letters and reports. This classification is no modern invention. Reports and letters were distinguished in antiquity physically as well as by contents. The letters were written on vertically oblong, one column, rather slim tablets called egirtu; the reports on horizontally oblong and often thick tablets called u'iltu.
The reports are mostly short and to the point, citing observations and the relevant passages from EAE or the hemerologies, etc. The letters always have the proper introductory phrases, blessings etc. It seems that Assyrian scholars were more prone to using the letter format whereas the Babylonians mostly wrote reports. This edition was far from adequate, even by the standards of its time, and many texts were given in transliteration only.
A new edition by H. Hunger, mostly in transliteration and translation only, appeared in as volume 8 in the series State Archives of Assyria. Since this work provides innumerable improvements on RMA, besides offering some additional material, I refer to the reports according to this edition as SAA 8 xx.
Many of the letters and reports have been dated by Parpola on the basis of the astronomical data contained in them see LAS II appendices I-J , and in the following, all dates assigned to them are Parpola's. The bulk of them were written around B. In ACh, Virolleaud dubbed the texts dealing with lunar omina "Sin", texts dealing with solar omina "Shamash", planetary omina "Ishtar" and meteorological omina "Adad", and edited them in this order which is not the same as the EAE. This terminology is often adapted for convenience in later literature.
AfO Beiheft 22, In ACh, Virolleaud followed the then current practice of making composite texts, even to the extent of copying tablets written in Babylonian and Assyrian ductus as if they were one. This of course clouds the true structure of EAE and is very inconvenient if one wishes to trace any evolution or divergences between possibly different traditions. One of the astrologers' most important "reference books", the astronomical compen- dium Mul. Apin, which also contains some omina, has appeared in an up- to-date edition by Hunger and Pingree in MUL.
An Astronomical Compendium in Cuneiform. AfO Beiheft 24, For the convenience of the reader, I offer in Appendix B a transliteration and translation of another reference book: the astrological compendium known as The Great Star List. The text is based on published material alone. Dramatis Personae In the following I will refer to scholars writing primarily on astrological topics as astrologers.
Experts in other fields, e. The king seems to have taken an active interest in the education of his scholars. In ABL , the Babylonian author informs the king that "the apprentices whom the king, my lord, entrusted to me have now learned EAE'. The change aimed at a more job- oriented training by substituting two tablets of explanatory word lists with two tablets of extispicy!
The general character of their education is illustrated by the lists of acquisitions to libraries in Nineveh 6 which throw light on private libraries. Where the names and titles of the donators are preserved, we see that not one of the tablets they give is in their own field of specialization. For example, the exorcist Arrabu from Nippur gives three tablets and five one-column tablets of EAE, two of lamentations, three of The Dreambook, in all tablets.
XV-XVI, c f. XV ff. Parpola a and SAA 7 nos. But even if they did not copy them themselves, they at least collected the textbooks of other specialists, for instance the diviner. Even if specialization in one of the fields provoked vs. Apart from that, practitioners of the two fields of divination were undoubtedly clannish. According to BBR ff see Lambert p. Both astrology and extispicy flourished in the Sargonid period, and the two branches of divination supplemented each other.
By its very nature, extispicy gave the kind of information that could not be obtained by astrology. It offered the means to corroborate and clarify other omens and could provide answers to specific questions. Nevertheless astrologers were probably the more highly esteemed diviners. In a list of scholars attached to the court, dated B. The first group are those who, by the amount and character of their correspondence, appear to belong to an "inner circle"' mostly residing in Nineveh but not actually at court, as references to invitations or summons to visit the king 2 — and indeed the necessity of written communication itself — seem to imply.
But it was probably a privilege of the inner circle to attend audiences regularly, 3 and some of the astrologers seem to have visited the king fairly often to explain or amplify their written observations and interpretations. The reports and letters were probably read to the king by scribes with a lower training, clerks attached to the court, like the ones, both eunuchs and men, who are depicted in the Assyrian reliefs from the reign of Tiglath-Pileser on, and who never seem to hold superior rank.
Summa izbu is difficult! This would also explain the king's rather frequent misunderstandings of passages in letters and reports. Munnabitu voiced similar doubts, cf. XIV ff. XX and c f. A scholar not employed by the king needed somebody to "take him by the hand and lead him into the presence of the king" Parpola p. Balasi himself offers to come and explain how to read a passage in Summa izbu LAS SAA 8 , from Asaridu: "The lord of kings may say: 'what do you mean? May the lord of kings summon me on a day that suits him, so that I can explain to the king, my lord.
Reade p. Oppenheim' thinks these were only meant for the scribes who read the reports aloud to the king, since Esarhaddon never even claims to be literate. But Esarhaddon probably was not altogether illiterate. It seems that at least Esarhaddon had a special routine for receiving reports, but perhaps it only applied to reports concerning eclipses due to their special significance. Afterwards, on the river bank, a scholar whom the king, my lord, Oppenheim p. Nowadays it should be done as it suits the king, my lord [. See further RLA 6 pp. In the petition ABL , reedited by Parpola , Urad-Gula describes the rise and fall of his fortunes and gives us some information of the payment of scholars.
He refers to the fact 1. But, according to a palace official, even the Chief Scribe's financial status Livingstone p. He is dying of a broken heart and falling out of the hands of the king, my lord, shattered. The poverty of the most learned of scholars, if the Chief Scribe is the same as the ummdnu of the king,' was proverbial.
The scholars were totally dependent for their positions and livelihood on the goodwill of the king, and this might lead to "humbleness and servile fear towards the monarch, and arrogance, hatred and contempt towards colleagues". Ahigar is identified in the Seleucid king-list mentioned above see p. In the Ahigar story he is said to have worked for Sennacherib; and Esarhaddon, incited by Ahigar's treacherous stepson who says that a wise scribe is dangerous, orders his death. Later the king regrets, and Ahigar is reinstated.
The letters and reports certainly abound with flatteries - such as comparing the king to the sage Adapa 4 or even to Marduk, 5 and the scholars often express their devotion and dependency in exclamations like "Who is my god, who is my lord? To whom should I be devoted but to the king, my lord! Old and trusted servants — this is how the scholars refer to themselves, and indeed the best description of their relationship with the king?
Of course, this appeal, like all the letters, is couched in the most polite terms. He obviously deems the event irrelevant to the king and says so rather outspokenly: "Why does the king look for evil , why does he look for it in the home of a peasant qatinnu? There is no evil in the palace, and when did the king ever visit Harihumba? Only if there is something wrong in the palace should the ritual "Evil of Lightning" be performed.
Did I not see earthquakes when I was young? The god wanted to open the ears of the king. He should pray, perform the namburbu and be on the alert". The king might check obse rvations and interpretations sent to him by one scholar with another.
- yalaka astrolog aslan;
- january 28 pisces horoscope;
- Navegación de entradas;
- 25 february full moon astrology.
- february 28 taurus birthday horoscope?
The very knowledge that the king might thus check their statements — even if it was only to get a "second opinion" — must have prevented the ' Leaving out an apodosis or two, see LAS II sub LAS The common idea of Machiavel Tian "priests" stage-managing politics' is hardly true. The relationship of the scholars with one another was also not quite so bleak as has been supposed. Practically all the examples cited by Oppen- heim2 of scholars discrediting their colleagues could very well be interpret- ed to have just the opposite meaning. The passage merely says: "Surely any one of the scholars can tell the king, my lord, about Amurru; "Amurru" means Syria Oppenheim p.
Now I have reported to the king everything that appears to me to be auspicious and that the safety of the land' with regard to the king my lord is good". His Babylonian compatriot Zakir again is perhaps a little overzealous, conscientiously sending a report SAA 8 with an omen of Scorpio and the moon explaining that "the omen is irrelevant ittum ul talappat ; but I reported it due to the watch of the king".
But all the Sargonid kings presumably demanded to be given exact information in these matters, and it was considered subversive not to report. The two astrologers watch the sky day and night but do not report anything about the king and the crown prince and have joined cause with the rebels! The king might write to ask the scholars to explain themselves better 3 orevnqustihbraon,stechlwrae.
The Babylonian exorcist Bel-le'i names a gatekeeper as witness to his observation of an unnamed planet in Taurus, apparently a very ill-portending omen SAA 8 The sky exists - - - - - - - - forever! When the alu-disease came the king smelt a rat and blamed the scholars for not warning him. Since then they reported everything and "was not the king, your father, fully alive and did he not exercise kingship?
In my opinion, the king did not feel a "latent scepticism towards divination". If the king felt any scepticism it was towards his experts. In a literary text called "The Sin of Sargon", 3 Sennacherib relates how he gathered his diviners to investigate the reason why his father had been slain in battle and why the body was never found.
He explains how he let them inspect the same liver in groups of three and four, so that they could not discuss the matter with each other. The diviners all came up with the same answer, which surprisingly confirmed Sennacherib's suspicions — that Sargon had sinned by placing the Assyrian gods above the Babylonian. He advises later kings to follow the same procedure. That diviners might indeed manipulate the divinatory process is illustrated in the letter SAA 10 They coerced him into performing lecanomancy to predict that the chief eunuch would become king.
The king had luxury editions of Enuma Anu Enlil. One king at least4 hadbotneiByladonAsrichte,wno ivory writing-boards, joined together to form a polyptych, available in the E. In the letters, Assurbanipal is often encouraged to take a look for himself in the series. Babylonian, ductus. Urad-Gula attempts to flatter Assurbanipal's vanity by referring obliquely to the king's knowledge of EAE Parpola p.
The omen quoted in this report is the very common one of full moon occurring on the 14th. Beside the scholars of the inner circle were the scholars less favoured and the ones situated around the realm in Assyria and Babylonia, even if we can not simply assume that all the reports written in Babylonian ductus actually came from Babylonia.
I see no reason why the Assyrian king should not have imported Babylonian scholars,' just as he imported their tablets. The king certainly got reports from Babylonia. He might check the validity of these observations with his "inner circle", e. N, 28 , a memorandum on scribes working on texts for the library at Nineveh. Some of these scribes are certainly Babylonian, for example a certain Ninurta-gimilli, of whom we hear that he has completed the series on which he was working and has been put in fetters! The lord of kings should write to Assur and all other cities, to Babylon, Nippur, Uruk and Borsippa, perhaps it was observed in those cities.
Some Babylonian scholars describe themselves as "mar GN", i. Oppenheim 3 takeshiomn wrteisalocuydnthaiwe writing to the king, and this seems quite probable — at least I have found no instance where it could be shown to be otherwise. The dateable reports of these scholars 4 suggest that they might have succeeded one another. No one identifies himself as mar babili, but from the contents of their letters and reports, some can be located to Babylon.
Tab-silli-Marduk calls 1 Akkad may be an alias for Babylon, as argued by Landsberger, but it is also possible that Mar -Istar actually was at the site of Akkad to supervise the reconstruction of Eulmag; Akkad was certainly not an observatory and Mar -lstar would only mention it because he had seen the eclipse there himself. No reports have been found from either of these astrologers at Niniveh. See Parpola Bel-upahhir refers to orders from the king which he received in Kar-Mulissu SM 8 This seems like a family of scholars from Babylon, as pointed out by Oppenheim,' all faithful to the Assyrian king.
Tab-silli-Marduk may be identified with a certain Tabija, the writer of eight reports and co-author with Zakir of the report SAA 8 ; this Zakir must have been in Babylon because he writes not only on astro- logical matters but on political developments in Babylon as well. He also complains to the king about the persecution he endured from the rebellious Sillaja ABL , written in B. But in B. He writes in the letter ABL which deals with the lunar eclipse of Dec. There does not seem to be any political reasons — perhaps the astrologers there reported to Babylon?
I do not think that the astrologers in Babylonia reporting to the king were part of an organized network of observers — as seems to have been the case in Assyria see below. The Babylonian astrologers write on all topics of astrology and quote EAE to their hearts' content, just as the members of the "inner circle". But when the king wanted to make sure ' Oppenheim p. And perhaps others as well: ABL no name was written in answer to a question from the king: "Mars was seen, why didn't you write? The scholars and astrology in Babylonia existed independently of what king or dynasty might reign, their relationship with the king was opportunistic.
We have more petitions from Babylonian than from Assyrian scholars — which might be taken to indicate a less stabilized relationship with the king than that of their Assyrian colleagues. The Assyrian scholars tend to be those most worried — most prone to looking at the sinister side. Both deal with the occultation of Jupiter by the moon 2, but while Akkullanu's report mostly predicts evil, Tabija's is all optimism, he omits one of the clearly relevant omens cited by Akullanu and edits away the word Subartu in another.
We did not [see] the moon here, just because of the clouds. Tabija, SAA 8 ff. In various Assyrian cities, teams of scribes seem to have been ordered to keep the watch of the king and report to him. He re- ports on the appearance of the moon and the sun, conjunctions, oppositions and eclipses, often with date, never with an attempt at interpretation or citations from the scriptures.
There are two letters from the scribes of Kalizi writing collectively LAS 85 and 86 merely reporting their observation of the full moon with a short version of the relevant apodosis. They also complain about not being able to keep the watch of the king and teaching their students because of corvee-work ilku and tupfikku. One letter is particularly interesting because it mentions the mandate of the team LAS : "Concerning the watch about which the king, my lord, wrote to me, we shall keep and we shall write.
In LAS 81 we hear that he has been ordered to watch out for an eclipse. Could that slight difference really have mattered, if it were at all noticed? Apart from that, the character of the reports from Nabu-musesi is different from that of the reports and letters from the teams.
The position of these scribes was very different from that of the scholars of the "inner circle" and those in Babylonian cities, who certainly did not have to do corvee-work. Their function was to corroborate obse rv ations which perhaps were mainly important to the regulation of the calendar but which of course also held astrological significance. Enmeduranki in his turn handed down his knowledge to the men of Nippur, Sippar and Babylon.
Ea, is said to have written on an ancient tablet tuppu mahru that the month of Dumuzu was suited for the gathering of armies and the pitching of camps. EAE had a human redactor, according to one tradition this was the mythic sage Adapa. The similarity between this statement and Pirge Avot I:1 is obvious, much less so the significance of that similarity: "Moses received the Torah on Mt. Sinai and handed it down to Joshua, and Joshua to the Elders, the Elders to the prophets, and the prophets handed it down to the men of the Great Assembly".
Hallo p. The question of the exact status of the "received tradition" in the first millennium has provoked much discussion. It would seem that, by the end of the second millennium, there was what Oppenheim called "the stream of tradition" — a fairly well-defined corpus of texts that from that time onwards was transmitted only by being copied by scribes. The colophons, from the 11th century onwards, show that the scribes took great care in copying their manuscripts exactly from the originals.
As far as can be judged from our present incomplete knowledge, the scribes only made minor changes, subtractions, or additioris 3 to the corpus, and they evidently strove for textual stability. There was consider- able leeway in the spelling of individual words, and to some extent also in the division of longer texts into tablets; but on the whole the "stream of tradition" remained fixed throughout the first millennium, in Assyria as well as in Babylonia.
It has become received tradition in Assyriology to refer to texts belonging to the "stream of tradition" as "canonical", which seems reasonable enough. The scribes appear to have considered them authoritative, insofar as any part of human knowledge could lay claim to that. They did not consider their texts divinely inspired; nor is there any evidence that they regarded any one edition of a text superior to others. See Weidner Plt. I-III and p. Lieberman The discussion is to some extent futile, partly because the texts are so broken, partly because most of them are so poorly edited.
Copies of the series were prepared for the Ninevite libraries, but this was no attempt to create "official", normative, texts. The criteria for this distinction remain unknown; but all three categories seem to have been considered equally authoritative. There is much more cuneiform material than is needed for the reconstruction of EAEs about 70 tablets alone. A huge amount of various kinds of scholia developed parallel to and around the canonical divinatory series, such as commentaries, excerpts and compilations from the series. Unfortunately we do not really know very much about the nature of some of the text genres listed below, to which much of the "extra" material must belong.
To some extent the classification is artificial, the different kinds of commentaries are clearly interrelated, but so much work remains to be done. Properly speaking this is not the ancient name of the series at all; it is consistently quoted by the Variant traditions are normally indicated by sang, "otherwise".
A remarkable case is KAR , cited above. The compilation of the series can be seen to begin already in Old Babylonian times, and it may well be that the process was more or less completed by the 11th century. Interestingly, the so-called astrolabe and the astronomical compilation Mul.
On the other hand, Mul. But it is only from the the Neo- Assyrian royal libraries that we have solid evidence for the contents and division of the series. CT 33 9, a Neo- Assyrian list of the stars of Enlil, Anu and Ea, also opens with a bilingual introduction, which seems, however, to give instructions for the use of the list.
I and p. See also the edition of tablet 14 by F. The sources go on differently after the mythological paragraph, but in all cases it is followed by the Shamash section see Rochberg-Halton p. Rochberg-Halton p. There are many difficulties in reconstructing the series. One is that in many cases only parts of EAE were acquisited to the royal library, and some tablets were more popular than others, as was also the case with literary texts such as the Epic of Gilgamesh.
Not even the format of tablets was standardized throughout the series. Complete editions were of course prepared at Nineveh specially for the library. Hey thought that it was possible to establish a more or less rigorous systematization and suggested that the many divergences between older and younger copies of the same tablet, between contemporary copies, and the inconsistent numbering can be traced back to different Schulen, namely: Babylon- Borsippa, Uruk, Assur, Kalhu and Nineveh. N, 28 , a memorandum of scribes working on copies of various series for the palace libraries; also LAS and LAS Vl In his reconstruction Weidner used two catalogues, one from Assur and one from Uruk, and catchlines and incipits.
The two catalogues are fragmentary and do not overlap. Only the incipits of tablet are preserved on the Uruk catalogue, the catalogue is used as guideline for tablet numbers, even though the texts and their colophons are not always in accordance with the catalogue. Weidner sums up the differences between the Assur catalogue and what he reconstructs from Nineveh as follows: Assur Niniveh Assur Niniveh Tablet 39 44 50 56 40 45 51 57 46 52 55 62? According to Weidner, 4 table"3ish wtemodifrngubs. According to another text from Nineveh it is tablet 35, and according to one text from Uruk it is tablet The numbering of individual tablets is not the only problem, but also their division of the text, e.
Recension B is known in manuscripts from Assur, See Oelsner p. To judge by the index of subjects of the lunar eclipse tablets Rochberg-Halton p. Tablets 20, 21 and 22, all on lunar eclipses, are arranged in reverse order from what might be expected, tablet 20 containing the more elaborate protases — unlike, e. These tablets then follow each other directly. The exact wording of the protasis is of supreme importance.
Two tablets dealing with the same phenomenon but described in different terms would follow each other. George a p. They may have used: II. It is tempting to see it as a sort of index. Rikis girri was serialized as appears from ACh Sin , dub. Mukallimtu, lit. In the commentaries the protasis commented upon is quoted together with its apodosis, sometimes in an abbreviated form. The mukallimtu comments on the tablets of EAE in proper sequence. Comments to more than one tablet of EAE may of course be written on one commentary tablet, e.
A commentary may deal with the interpretation of single words, as in ACh Ishtar "If Venus is steady in the morning: the people of all countries will eat plenty, hostile kings will be reconciled". The commentary says lines , var. ACh Suppl. EAE is the only divinatory series to have a named and serialized commentary. Weidner' calls it "Die kommentierende Anschluss-Serie", which is an apt description since it does not just comment on individual omina, but also give general principles, e.
Sin 19 contains a list of the parameters to be considered in the interpretation of a lunar eclipse see p. Its special status can also be seen from the fact that it was quoted frequently in letters and reports and by almost all of the scholars' with no special reference, just as was the EAE itself. Further- more, it is not classified as a pi ummani commentary — whatever that means.
Tablet 2 is organized in three columns: the first containing the protasis, the second the apodosis sometimes left out , the third the explanation of the protasis. Due to the state of publication it is impossible to know if this arrangement was peculiar to tablet 2; probably it was not. Like the mukallimtus on individual tablets, it is a factual commentary and contains the same types of explanations of protases which are often imprecise or outright impossible. Loose language like "not at its appointed time", "not at the right time", "not in its season" is defined as exact dates in ACh Sin It contains identifications: an impossible observation, "If the Goat-star Lyra reaches the Wolf-star a Trianguli : in that year fall of cattle" is explained, "Venus reaches Mars".
As an example of the form and 1 p. Its interpretation is: it is good for the king, my lord, the sun is the star of the king. But the omens did not only refer to conjunction of the moon with Saturn, but could equally well be applied to the opposition of the moon and the sun side by side with all the rest. Jeyes' suggests that one of the objectives of the extispicy mukallimtu was to actually determine which description of a phenomenon was to be preferred.
During its long history, the terminology of extispicy certainly had become no less confused than that of astrology. Extispicy mukallimtus apparently often quote an omen protases followed by other protases, differently formulated, which warrant the same interpretation. It may originate in the school room as the teacher's answers to pupils' questions which were written down and thus passed into the written tradition. This is a late Babylonian commentary to EAE with the postscript sa-a-tu u. It contains both "philological" and factual explanations of both protasis and apodosis, but does not try to explain the link between them, such as is known from commentaries to other texts.
Undoubtedly, the word lists were consulted by the scholars, though not often mentioned explicitly. Excerpts of EAE and its commentaries, liginnu or liqtu, written on one-column tablets. They often concentrate on a single topic, quoting See Livingstone p. Even though none of these are astrological, such texts surely existed.
We know that tablets with omens relevant to particular celestial phenomena were written for the king see p. A different kind of excerpted texts are the "compilations", multicolumn tablets that contain sections of omens of unrelated subject matter. Ahu, "strange, what is outside". As has been argued by Rochberg- Halton, 5 this should be understood as "extraneous", not "uncanonical", in the sense that ahu texts represented a parallel, perhaps less well-known, but not an inferior or less standardized tradition.
We have references to an ahu tradition in catchlines, subscripts, catalogues and also from the letters and reports though these references are few. K r18 Bezold, Cat. Tablet - - - - of Assurbanipal, etc. If it flashes from left to right: unfavourable. ACh Sin "E ] mul. Chunks of extraneous omens were incorporated, or appended, to the canonical series.
But this section consists of omens from section I and III, rearranged in the order of the months instead of following the Venus cycle, but with the same wording except that uhhuru is in the present tense in sections I and III, in the preterite in section IV. Three manuscripts do not contain section IV, and at least two manuscripts contain only section IV. Either tablet 63 was divided into two tablets in one recension BPO I p.
EAE tablet 57 also included ahu omens: ACh Ishtar "39 ex- traneous omens found in another tablet [- - - -]". This line is followed by the colophon stating that this is tablet 57 of Enuma Anu Enlil. In addition to the examples quoted below, see also SAA 8 Nabu-musesi , unfortunately in broken context. The extraneous material is thus in- corporated in both the series and its commentary. Others may be omina that merely had been left out by chance; or E.
Copied according to its original and collated, tablet of Nabu-zuqup-kenu" seems to be a special case. This text is not astrological, but contains "omens from the reign of the king kar-le-em-me-tum-bi" that are indeed very strange: "A cut-off head laughs", and so on. It is generally assumed 3 that the menology is secondary. The astrologers also used the hemerologies to determine which days were good for a specific undertaking, such as good days for taking oath LAS 1 r. The astrologers may send excerpts from hemerologies, for instance lists of auspicious days, see SAA 8 nos.
Star lists. Among the several lists of stars, the most astrological is the so-called Great Star List for a transliteration and translation, see App. This text is a motley of mythological and astrological data on planets and See e. Also SAA 8 , where Nabu-musesi quotes first three omens concerning Jupiter in the lunar halo, with the names sag. Then he quotes one with the third name of Jupiter, sul. The standard omen is probably found in ACh 2. Can I simply say what a aid to find someone who actually is aware of what theyre speaking about on the internet.
You undoubtedly know find out how to convey an issue to mild and make it important. More individuals must read this and understand this side of the story. I cant believe youre not more fashionable because you positively have the gift. Some truly great info , Gladiola I discovered this. I was studying some of your blog posts on this internet site and I believe this internet site is real informative! Keep putting up. I will right away grab your rss feed as I can not to find your e-mail subscription link or newsletter service. Kindly let me understand so that I may just subscribe.
Just desire to say your article is as surprising. The clarity to your post is just spectacular and i could suppose you are a professional on this subject. Fine along with your permission allow me to take hold of your RSS feed to keep up to date with imminent post. You must proceed your writing. Having read this I thought it was very informative. I appreciate you taking the time and effort to put this article together.
I once again find myself spending way to much time both reading and commenting. But so what, it was still worth it! Kindly permit me recognize so that I may subscribe. You recognize thus considerably with regards to this matter, made me in my view consider it from a lot of numerous angles. All the time handle it up! Very good written information. It will be valuable to anyone who employess it, as well as myself. Please send me an e-mail if interested. Its excellent as your other content : D, thanks for putting up.
Do you know if they make any plugins to protect against hackers? Any tips? I hope to give something back and help others like you helped me. I discovered your weblog using msn. That is an extremely smartly written article.
- Inquirer Entertainment Horoscope.
- new capricorn horoscope dates?
- سيارات وطرادات “الداخلية” للبيع – صحيفة حماك الالكترونية?
- akkineni naga chaitanya horoscope.
- Mon horoscope du Jour, Horoscope du Astrologie;
I will definitely comeback. I am very happy to read this. Appreciate your sharing this best doc. After study a few of the blog posts on your website now, and I truly like your way of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website list and will be checking back soon. Pls check out my web site as well and let me know what you think. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is tasteful, your authored subject matter stylish. Thank you a lot for sharing this with all people you actually recognize what you are speaking about!
We may have a link trade agreement among us! There is some validity however I will take maintain opinion till I look into it further. Good article , thanks and we would like extra! Added to FeedBurner as effectively. Very efficiently written post. It will be valuable to anybody who utilizes it, including yours truly :. Keep up the good work — looking forward to more posts. Do you know if they make any plugins to help with Search Engine Optimization? If you know of any please share.
Wow, wonderful blog layout! The overall look of your site is fantastic, let alone the content! You are my inspiration, I possess few web logs and sometimes run out from brand :. The subsequent time I read a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as a lot as this one. I mean, I do know it was my choice to read, but I really thought youd have something interesting to say.
All I hear is a bunch of whining about something that you possibly can fix when you werent too busy searching for attention. Exploring in Yahoo I at last stumbled upon this website. Reading this info So i am happy to convey that I have a very good uncanny feeling I discovered exactly what I needed.
I most certainly will make certain to do not forget this web site and give it a look on a constant basis. I appreciate you for presenting those important, healthy, informative and also easy thoughts on the topic to Emily. Nowadays bloggers publish only about gossips and net and this is really irritating. A good website with exciting content, this is what I need.
Thanks for keeping this website, I will be visiting it. Do you do newsletters? After research a couple of of the blog posts in your web site now, and I truly like your method of blogging. I bookmarked it to my bookmark website record and will likely be checking back soon. Pls take a look at my web site as well and let me know what you think. Very nice post. I like the valuable info you provide in your articles. Good luck for the next!
Hey, you used to write magnificent, but the last few posts have been kinda boring? K I miss your super writings. Past several posts are just a little bit out of track! Attractive element of content. I just stumbled upon your blog and in accession capital to assert that I get in fact loved account your blog posts. Anyway I will be subscribing to your feeds and even I achievement you get right of entry to consistently rapidly. Thank you for the sensible critique. Me and my neighbor were just preparing to do a little research on this.
You could definitely see your expertise within the paintings you write. At all times follow your heart. I discovered your blog site on google and check a few of your early posts. Continue to keep up the very good operate. Seeking forward to reading more from you later on! Very interesting subject, thanks for putting up. I love what you guys are usually up too. This sort of clever work and exposure! Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! I was seeking this particular information for a long time. Thank you and good luck. I will definitely bookmark your website.
It is really a nice and helpful piece of information. Please keep us up to date like this. I do not even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great. I went over this web site and I think you have a lot of wonderful information, saved to bookmarks :. Excellent website. And certainly, thanks for your sweat!
Your site provided us with valuable info to work on. I simply needed to say thanks again. It truly was a very intimidating circumstance in my view, nevertheless looking at this well-written form you resolved the issue took me to cry over happiness. I am thankful for this assistance and thus have high hopes you are aware of an amazing job your are putting in educating others using your web page.
I am certain you have never encountered all of us. Fantastic beat! I would like to apprentice even as you amend your site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a appropriate deal. I had been a little bit familiar of this your broadcast offered brilliant clear concept.
I really delighted to find this site on bing, just what I was looking for : D likewise saved to bookmarks. Useful information. We will have a hyperlink change arrangement among us! Greetings from Florida! Anyhow, very good site! But a smiling visitor here to share the love :, btw great design. I believe other website proprietors should take this internet site as an example , very clean and excellent user friendly layout.
It seems too complicated and extremely vast for me. Great work! This is the type of information that should be shared around the web. Shame on Google for not positioning this post higher! Come on over and visit my website. I genuinely enjoy looking through on this site, it contains wonderful content. Thank you for another informative site.
Where else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect way? I have a project that I am just now working on, and I have been on the look out for such info. Most of what you articulate is astonishingly precise and it makes me ponder why I had not looked at this in this light previously.
This particular article truly did turn the light on for me personally as far as this particular subject goes. Nonetheless there is actually 1 factor I am not necessarily too comfortable with and while I make an effort to reconcile that with the actual main idea of the position, allow me see what all the rest of your visitors have to say. Nicely done. Well I really enjoyed reading it. This subject provided by you is very helpful for accurate planning. The root of your writing whilst appearing agreeable at first, did not settle very well with me after some time.
Someplace within the paragraphs you actually were able to make me a believer unfortunately just for a while. I still have got a problem with your jumps in logic and one might do nicely to help fill in those gaps. In the event that you actually can accomplish that, I could certainly end up being amazed. Great post and straight to the point. I am not sure if this is actually the best place to ask but do you guys have any ideea where to get some professional writers?
Keep up the great work! You know, a lot of people are searching around for this info, you could aid them greatly. Basically Excellent. Neat blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog jump out. Please let me know where you got your design. Perhaps you can write next articles referring to this article.
I want to read more things about it! Aw, this was a really nice post. In thought I wish to put in writing like this moreover — taking time and actual effort to make an excellent article… but what can I say… I procrastinate alot and in no way seem to get one thing done. Thanks a lot! I have been looking all over for this! You have made my day! Thanks again! Wonderful web site. Lots of helpful information here. And obviously, thank you in your sweat! Terrific work! This is the type of info that should be shared around the web.
Come on over and visit my web site. In my opinion, if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the web will be much more useful than ever before. Is there any way you can remove people from that service? Appreciate it! Do you have any recommendations for novice blog writers? My brother recommended I might like this web site.
He was totally right.
This post actually made my day. You can not imagine just how much time I had spent for this information! Any suggestions? Hi, Neat post. There is a problem with your website in internet explorer, would test this… IE still is the market leader and a good portion of people will miss your wonderful writing because of this problem. Exceptional post however I was wanting to know if you could write a litte more on this topic? Thank you! I cling on to listening to the newscast talk about getting boundless online grant applications so I have been looking around for the best site to get one.
Could you advise me please, where could i find some? Thanks for a marvelous posting! I really enjoyed reading it, you may be a great author. I will always bookmark your blog and will eventually come back later in life. I want to encourage continue your great work, have a nice holiday weekend! I have been absent for a while, but now I remember why I used to love this site.
How frequently you update your website? There is noticeably a bundle to know about this. I assume you made certain nice points in features also. I will right away clutch your rss feed as I can not find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Please allow me recognise in order that I could subscribe.
Please stay us informed like this. I have been checking out some of your stories and i can claim clever stuff. I will make sure to bookmark your site. Today bloggers publish only about gossips and internet and this is really frustrating. Can not find it. Thanks , I will try and check back more often. How frequently you update your web site? You recognize therefore significantly in terms of this subject, made me personally believe it from so many various angles.
Your personal stuffs excellent. At all times maintain it up! Very well written information. It will be valuable to anybody who utilizes it, as well as yours truly :. Keep up the good work — i will definitely read more posts. Will you please drop me a mail? I will right away grab your rss as I can not find your email subscription link or e-newsletter service. Kindly let me know in order that I could subscribe. I have been absent for some time, but now I remember why I used to love this site. Thanks , I will try and check back more frequently. How frequently you update your site?
There is an issue together with your site in web explorer, would test this… IE still is the marketplace chief and a large element of other folks will pass over your magnificent writing because of this problem. Thanks for any other informative blog. The place else could I get that type of information written in such a perfect way?
I have recently started a blog, the info you offer on this website has helped me greatly. I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog wordpress was hacked and I ended up losing many months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any solutions to protect against hackers? This is my first visit to your blog! We are a team of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche.
Your blog provided us useful information to work on. You have done a marvellous job! My brother recommended I might like this website. He was entirely right. This post truly made my day. That is the proper weblog for anybody who needs to search out out about this topic. You notice a lot its virtually laborious to argue with you not that I truly would need…HaHa.
You positively put a new spin on a topic thats been written about for years. Great stuff, simply great! Would you mind if I share your blog with my myspace group? Please let me know. Many thanks. I must spend a while finding out much more or understanding more. Thank you for excellent info I was looking for this info for my mission. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.
Great blog here! Also your web site loads up fast! You could certainly see your skills in the work you write. Always go after your heart. This blog looks just like my old one! Excellent choice of colors! I wanted to thank you for this great read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it I have you bookmarked to check out new stuff you post….
This is the correct weblog for anybody who desires to find out about this topic. You notice so much its virtually laborious to argue with you not that I actually would want…HaHa. You definitely put a new spin on a topic thats been written about for years. Nice stuff, simply nice! I hope to offer one thing again and aid others such as you helped me.
In my view, if all website owners and bloggers made excellent content as you probably did, the internet might be a lot more helpful than ever before. The next time I learn a weblog, I hope that it doesnt disappoint me as much as this one. I imply, I do know it was my choice to learn, however I really thought youd have something attention-grabbing to say.
All I hear is a bunch of whining about one thing that you can repair for those who werent too busy looking for attention. Hi , I do believe this is an excellent blog. I stumbled upon it on Yahoo , i will come back once again. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and help other people. Hi my friend! I want to say that this post is amazing, great written and include almost all vital infos.
I would like to see extra posts like this. I used to be suggested this blog via my cousin. Howdy very nice site!! After all, what a great site and informative posts, I will upload inbound link — bookmark this web site? Regards, Reader. I think other website proprietors should take this website as an model, very clean and magnificent user genial style and design, let alone the content. Of course, what a magnificent blog and informative posts, I definitely will bookmark your site. Have an awsome day! Bookmarked this website page, will come back for more articles.
I found simply the information I already searched everywhere and just could not come across. What an ideal web-site. As a Newbie, I am constantly browsing online for articles that can be of assistance to me. Someone in my Myspace group shared this site with us so I came to take a look. Great blog and wonderful design. Thanks for the good writeup. It actually was a leisure account it. Glance complex to far added agreeable from you! By the way, how can we keep in touch? I have learn a few excellent stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting.
I wonder how so much effort you put to make this type of excellent informative web site. This is a very good tips especially to those new to blogosphere, brief and accurate information… Thanks for sharing this one. A must read article. I have been checking out some of your articles and i must say clever stuff.
I will surely bookmark your site. I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to say that I have truly enjoyed browsing your blog posts. I like what you guys are up too. Such smart work and reporting! Carry on the superb works guys I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my web site :. That is a really good tip particularly to those fresh to the blogosphere. Simple but very accurate info? Someone in my Facebook group shared this site with us so I came to take a look.
Superb blog and great style and design. Hi, after reading this remarkable paragraph i am also happy to share my knowledge here with mates. Currently it appears like Drupal is the top blogging platform out there right now. K IE nonetheless is the market leader and a good element of other people will pass over your excellent writing because of this problem. Does your blog have a contact page?
Either way, great blog and I look forward to seeing it develop over time. Wonderful blog! I found it while searching on Yahoo News. Do you have any tips on how to get listed in Yahoo News? Appreciate it. Pingback : Google. I certainly love reading everything that is written on your site. Keep the posts coming. I enjoyed it! Aw, this was a very nice post. In idea I wish to put in writing like this moreover — taking time and precise effort to make an excellent article… but what can I say… I procrastinate alot and by no means seem to get something done.
It will be helpful to anybody who employess it, including yours truly :. Keep doing what you are doing — for sure i will check out more posts. Once I initially commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get four emails with the identical comment.
Please let me recognize in order that I could subscribe.follow url
Aktywnie rozpoczęli sezon młodzi siatkarze z IKS Atak Elbląg
This is the right blog for anyone who wants to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost hard to argue with you not that I actually would want…HaHa. Great stuff, just great! I could have sworn I? Anyhow, I? There are actually quite a lot of details like that to take into consideration.
That could be a nice point to bring up. I supply the ideas above as general inspiration however clearly there are questions like the one you bring up where an important factor will probably be working in sincere good faith. I don? There is some validity however I will take hold opinion till I look into it further.
Good article , thanks and we wish more! Added to FeedBurner as properly. I needs to spend some time learning more or understanding more. Thanks for fantastic info I was looking for this information for my mission. Magnificent website. Plenty of helpful info here. I am sending it to several pals ans also sharing in delicious. And of course, thank you for your effort! This is the first time I frequented your web page and thus far? I surprised with the analysis you made to make this particular submit amazing. Wonderful task! Some genuinely tremendous work on behalf of the owner of this internet site, perfectly great subject matter.
Wow I just adore her! She is so beautiful plus a really good actress. Certainly price bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how so much effort you set to create this type of wonderful informative website. Lots of other folks will be benefited out of your writing. I permanently wanted to write on my website something like that. Can I include a part of your post to my site? Very useful advice in this particular article! It is the little changes which will make the largest changes. Thanks a lot for sharing! That is the kind of info that are meant to be shared across the net. Disgrace on Google for not positioning this put up higher!
Come on over and seek advice from my site. I looked on the internet for the subject and found most people will approve with your blog. However want to observation on few general things, The site taste is wonderful, the articles is really nice D. I truly love how it is simple on my eyes and the data are well written. Have a great day! I am attempting to find things to enhance my site! I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!! This is a very well written article. Your web-site is very cool. I am impressed by the details that you have on this website. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles.
You, my pal, ROCK! I found just the info I already searched everywhere and just could not come across. What an ideal website. I am very glad to see your post. Will you kindly drop me a mail? Some genuinely fantastic content on this web site, thank you for contribution. Would you mind if I share your blog with my zynga group? Hi, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam remarks? Thanks on your marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you will be a great author. I will make sure to bookmark your blog and will come back someday.
I want to encourage you to definitely continue your great work, have a nice weekend! They are very convincing and can definitely work. Still, the posts are too brief for beginners. May just you please extend them a little from next time? Hi there, I discovered your site by way of Google whilst searching for a similar topic, your web site got here up, it seems great.
Wow, awesome weblog layout! How long have you ever been blogging for? The entire glance of your website is great, let alone the content material! Thank you for sharing superb informations. Your website is so cool. What a perfect web-site. I definitely liked reading all that is posted on your blog. Keep the tips coming. Hey, you used to write magnificent, but the last few posts have been kinda boring… I miss your tremendous writings. Past several posts are just a bit out of track! You realize therefore significantly relating to this subject, produced me personally consider it from numerous varied angles.
Your own stuffs outstanding. Always maintain it up! You made some fine points there. I did a search on the theme and found mainly persons will go along with with your blog. An interesting dialogue is price comment. I believe that you must write extra on this topic, it might not be a taboo subject but usually people are not sufficient to speak on such topics.
To the next. It is lovely worth enough for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net might be a lot more helpful than ever before. Several of them are rife with spelling problems and I find it very troublesome to tell the reality nevertheless I will certainly come again again. Lucky me I ran across your website by accident stumbleupon.
I have book-marked it for later! The arena hopes for even more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to say how they believe. I do love the manner in which you have framed this specific matter plus it does present me some fodder for thought. Still, thank you for this outstanding piece and though I can not necessarily agree with it in totality, I regard your viewpoint.
Good day! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I genuinely enjoy reading through your posts. Only a smiling visitant here to share the love :, btw outstanding pattern. It is appropriate time to make a few plans for the long run and it is time to be happy. I have read this submit and if I may I want to counsel you few interesting issues or tips.
Maybe you could write subsequent articles regarding this article. I desire to read even more things about it! Hi, just required you to know I he added your site to my Google bookmarks due to your layout. But seriously, I believe your internet site has 1 in the freshest theme I?? It extremely helps make reading your blog significantly easier.
It is pretty value sufficient for me. In my opinion, if all site owners and bloggers made just right content as you probably did, the internet can be much more useful than ever before. Nice post. I learn something more challenging on different blogs everyday. It will always be stimulating to read content from other writers and practice a little something from their store. Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with Search Engine Optimization?
The other day, while I was at work, my cousin stole my iPad and tested to see if it can survive a thirty foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation. My apple ipad is now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is entirely off topic but I had to share it with someone! This post was really remarkable, especially because I was looking for thoughts on this subject last Friday.
Outstanding post, I think website owners should acquire a lot from this web site its really user genial. Hello, i read your blog occasionally and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam remarks? If so how do you protect against it, any plugin or anything you can suggest? Your humoristic style is awesome, keep it up! Hi, i read your blog from time to time and i own a similar one and i was just wondering if you get a lot of spam responses?
If so how do you protect against it, any plugin or anything you can recommend? Plenty of useful information here. I am sending it to several friends ans also sharing in delicious. And of course, thanks for your sweat! Pingback : m88 mobile. Pingback : dildo. Pingback : Cat Supplies. Howdy very nice web site!! An interesting discussion is worth comment. I think that you should write more on this topic, it might not be a taboo subject but generally people are not enough to speak on such topics.
Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Your website provided us with useful information to paintings on. You have done an impressive process and our whole neighborhood will be grateful to you. Thank you for helping out, great information. Very interesting information! Perfect just what I was looking for! The Holy Spirit accomplishes all through me.
Is gonna be back often to check up on new posts. Hey there! This is my first comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and tell you I truly enjoy reading through your posts. Thank you so much! Pingback : morocco desert trips. Pingback : adam sex toys. This design is incredible! You definitely know how to keep a reader amused. Excellent job. Needed to create you one tiny remark just to thank you very much again on your amazing thoughts you have shared in this case. It was so shockingly open-handed with people like you giving easily just what most of us would have offered for an electronic book to earn some bucks for themselves, specifically since you could have tried it if you ever wanted.
Those basics as well worked to be the fantastic way to be aware that most people have the same desire just as my very own to see lots more regarding this condition. I think there are some more enjoyable moments in the future for folks who read through your blog post. Pingback : adam and eve promo. Pingback : adam and eve deals.
It is in reality a nice and useful piece of information. I think other web-site proprietors should take this site as an model, very clean and great user friendly style and design, as well as the content. Is going to be back incessantly in order to investigate cross-check new posts. I looked on the internet for the subject matter and found most people will consent with your blog. I think other web-site proprietors should take this web site as an model, very clean and wonderful user friendly style and design, as well as the content.
I have read some good stuff here. Certainly worth bookmarking for revisiting. I wonder how much effort you put to make such a magnificent informative website. Really looking forward to read more. A handful of my blog readers have complained about my site not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Opera. Pingback : foam dipped sparring dyna head gear. This particular piece really did turn the light on for me personally as far as this particular subject goes. Nonetheless there is actually one factor I am not necessarily too cozy with and whilst I try to reconcile that with the actual main theme of the issue, allow me observe exactly what all the rest of your readers have to say.
Well done. Pingback : lovakengj favor guide. Hiya, I am really glad I have found this information. Nowadays bloggers publish just about gossips and internet and this is actually irritating. A good web site with interesting content, this is what I need. Pingback : Brazilian Hair.
With havin so much written content do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright violation? Do you know any ways to help protect against content from being stolen? You can certainly see your skills within the work you write. The sector hopes for more passionate writers like you who are not afraid to mention how they believe.
At all times go after your heart. Incredible as it is to believe, Spies of the Mississippi is a factual boo. Sarah Price has always respected and honored her ancestors through exploration and research about her family history and their religio. Compelling and not that distant from real-world cults that have ended in traged. When he goes back there he meets two kids and one of them is killed by the othe. Sejumlah arkeolog menghilang tanpa jejak di sebuah situs reruntuhan kuno suku Maya di Meksik.
It certainly sounded awkward to m. After serving is the U.. I can not wait to read book two in this series, even though I just finished this book I feel myself having withdrawals by not being able to read the second book ye. Are you my boyfriend? The poor kid is rushing about, trying to salvage what she can while her drunk brothers and father look on uselessl. This is a bit different as the gang heads to Minnesota to look for a missing girl that Rick know. Though I was able to figure out who the murderer was very quickly, it was a surprise as to the true identity. If a person is looking to read a book about murder and mystery then they should search elsewher.
Eventually, Aguinaldo became the leader of a new anti-American insurrection in the islands; American soldiers found themselves waging war against the people they were supposed to liberate. She was bossy and hot-headed, and should I mention she needed anger management? In reality, there are millions of people just like he. But when misfortune strikes, Mrs P has to put her sleuthing to good effect to make sure that a satisfactory solution is arrived at.
En una divertida satira politica, premiado provocador Michael Moore revela el gran grupo que estan asolando del mundo: los estupidos hombres blanco. Manfred De La Rey e Shasha Courteney sono figli della stessa madre, ma non lo sanno e neppure lo sospettan. It is a fun little treasure that flows along rather quickly and is brief concerning the love scene.
Well I sincerely enjoyed reading it. This subject offered by you is very constructive for correct planning. You actually make it appear really easy with your presentation however I find this matter to be actually one thing that I feel I would by no means understand. It seems too complex and extremely huge for me. Pingback : porn movie. Some of you have to relate to that. Luckily for me, I married a man who loves to coo. As an avid bible study leader, I prefer the reference and translation beside the verse so I can memorize them or identify them as life verses to remembe.
Pete BlaberPete Blaber strikes the perfect balance between operational memoir and practical leadership advice accrued from a successful career as a Delta operator in The Mission, the Men, and M. There was a steampunk edge that I really liked, and the art was often splendid. Fair warning, though: this is definitely an adult story, with some graphic images that made me cringe although, admittedly, I have a low tolerance for gor. Grace is also experiencing another new feeling; paralyzing fear of her new stepfather. Ryder is a gorgeous, green eyed, six-foot basketball joc.
Anna-Kate, the narrator, has a strong voice and comes across quite likable. I am sure the absolute beginner could use this book — I found it was comfortable for me since I am not really a novice at croche.